By: Paul Antonopoulos – CSS Project Director; MENA and Latin America Research Fellow
Changing Turkish-Russian Relations
Turkey appears unable to grasp Russia’s resolve and long-term planning
ovember 24 2015 will forever mark the turning in Turkish and Russian relations. The Russian Sukhoi Su-24M tactical bomber jet was shot down by two Turkish F-16 Fighting Falcon jets. The Russian bomber was conducting sorties upon the request from Damascus. Despite Putin immediately calling for Turkey’s military attaché in Moscow, Ankara had refused to apologise for the downing of the jet. The attack resulted in a pilot being shot down by Turkmen Islamists who was parachuting to land, and a Russian commando also killed in the rescue operation for the second pilot. Putin in speaking with the Hashemite King Abdullah II of Jordan, described the attack as a ‘stab in the back, carried out against us by accomplices of terrorists.’
By: Andrés Barrera González, – PhD in Political Science and Sociology, Profesor Titular at the University Complutense of Madrid.
Edited by: Joaquin Flores
The Rise and Transformation of American Militarism and Imperialism after World War Two
Part I: Europe After World War Two
hroughout the 19th century world affairs were dominated by Europe’s great colonial and imperial powers: Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, and the Ottomans on the south-eastern fringes of the continent. Rivalry and competition for the world’s resources between the European ‘great powers’ and colonial metropolises reached a peak at the end of the century. And this was the background setting that brought Europe to war and catastrophe during 1914-18. It was the first act in the dramatic demise of Europe’s world hegemony. The second and final act of the fall of Europe as the axis of global power took place during the 1939-45 war, which again had the continent as its main theatre of operations. World War Two caused unprecedented material destruction, and it took an appalling toll in human life. It also led to the first nuclear holocaust, triggered by the arbitrary decision of the government of the United States to test-drop recently built atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 [i].
As a consequence of the war, most of Europe (including the Soviet Union) was left thoroughly devastated and worn out; which set the ground for the uncontested hegemony of the United States, given that its territory and economy remained untouched by the disasters of the war. Thus Western Europe became fully dependent, and increasingly subordinated to the United States in all fundamental dimensions: economic, political, and military. A turn of events that was reinforced with the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949; namely to counter the perceived-stated threat coming from a former war ally, the Soviet Union, unwilling to yield to the emerging world power configuration headed by the United States. The USA, its Western European ‘allies’ stalking along, thus raised the stakes in its confrontation with the Soviet Union, declaring the inauguration of the Cold War.
Electric Yerevan & Lessons on the Color-Spring Tactic
he Electric Yerevan protest provides us with an excellent opportunity to review some of the basic underlying mechanics and psychology of the Color-Spring tactic. It is important to share these publicly, for it is indeed probable that the Color-Spring tactic will be increasingly applied in the world as a “hybrid soft-power/hard-power tactic”.
A moral principle held by Gene Sharp, who was one of the tactic’s main developers, was that violence is not necessary for revolution. What is strange, contradictory, even dishonest here is that violence is reduced taxonomically to the physical violence of the state’s gendarmes against the civilians. But we know that violence comes in many forms.
We live in a time of great violence; physical, psychological, legal, economic, spiritual violence. Not only has the Color Revolution tactic engendered the latter four, but its mutation into the Arab Spring tactic also employs heinous physical violence. We can see today, tens of thousands dead in Libya, hundreds of thousands in Syria, and a mounting figure in Ukraine which threatens to surpass the precedents.
The Birth of Zmiana and the Syncretic Struggle in Poland
n February 21, 2015, anti-globalization activists from across the Polish political spectrum gathered in the building of the Polish Teachers’ Union in Warsaw for the founding congress of the new political party, Zmiana (Change). Despite derision by the Polish corporate media as the “Russian Fifth Column in Poland,” “Putin’s little green trolls,” and “little red idiots,” and notwithstanding political harassment by the Young Greens who strove to ban the congress from the All-Polish Alliance of Trade Unions building, and also in defiance of the presence of the Ukrainian SBU outside, more than a hundred activists proudly assembled to launch a new party of tremendous importance to the Polish political scene. Despite his being denied entry into Poland, the triumphant gathering of Zmiana was still pleasingly greeted by a video message from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Donetsk People’s Republic. Continue reading →
By: Leonid V. Savin (translated by Kristina Kharlova)
The Future Of Eurasia: Prolegomena for the Geopolitical Integration of the Continent
The beginning of the 21st century has not been as rosy as it was described by futurologists and planned by politicians: a global financial crisis, problems within the Eurozone, the “swamp” for American troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, armed conflicts in Central Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, a series of color revolutions in the post-Soviet space, and riots in the capitals of Western Europe. It would seem that with modern technology, historical heritage and conventional agreement on human rights Europe has already defined its future and, if not is following the planning, but at least is maintaining regulatory policy in the area of its responsibility. However, current developments indicate that everything turned out to be more complicated. The world has entered a zone of geopolitical turbulence, with multi-level processes, new challenges and asymmetric responses.Continue reading →