Introduction by Joaquin Flores:
We at the Center are honored to begin a series of reproduction of the works of Serbian writer, novelist, socio-cultural and political theorist and commentator Boris Nad. We would like our readers to take notice of the description of several details which coincide with early Christian manifestations. For instance you will read about the 12 thrones, and the one greatest being the father of men and Gods, which coincides with the 12 apostles and 12 disciples of Christ. This also coincides with the 12 months calendar system, and the 12 primary gods of the Greco-Roman pantheon. Another allusion to Christian concepts here are the twin birds, here depicted as Ravens, and in other lore depicted as eagles or hawks. Keep in mind that birds are egg laying animals most closely related to dinosaurs, and by close extension, reptiles. Additionally, the tales of the City stem from about the early 13th century, and in the views of a small but emerging group of Russian historians and mathematicians, coincides with the second century of Christianity according to a new take on chronology. At the same time, the story itself coincides with the consensually (alleged) placed 1st century of Christianity, and therefore places the Aryan (Iranian/Caucasian/Armenian) invasion of the Baltic at around that time. This is quite interesting because this is corroborated by the development of both proto-Cyrillic and Glagolitic (runic) writing from the Trans-caucasus region which appears at around the alleged 9th century AD. This more properly contextualizes the findings of identical writing in central Europe by Guido Von List. In other words, the Aryan Invasion did not stem from the Baltic and push south into Pashtunistan and the Subcontinent. Rather it began in the Caucuses and pushed both North to the Baltic and eventually Germany, presenting itself as the Gothic (as in Glagolitic writing) Invasion, and South into India as the Iranian or Parthian Invasion.
The exploration of the Mythical City of Asgard is given a geography and chronology, as the Iranian city of Nisa: this is a sister name for several ‘NS’ city names around the world which each have an esoteric and cult association with the birth of the living Christ figure, such as Nisareth or Nasareth, Nis in Serbia connected to Naivissos and Naissus and Nice in France and several cities named Nizza in both Germany and Italy. This is similar to the various manifestations and namings of Rome; Rome in Italy, Rome as the City Byzantium, and Moscow as the Third Rome. Finally see that Parthian Nis is located adjacently to the south of the Aryan people of Khwarezm, part of ancient Iran and Parthia, known also as Chorasmia, Khwarezmia, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Khorezm, Khoresm, Khorasam, Harezm, Horezm, Chorezm and Khazaram or Khazahar. Indeed the Christ figure depicted in early Christianity as an Emperor, as well as most Byzantine Emperors were ‘Khazar’ faced. This parallels the history of Iranian domination of the Balkans and Anatolia in the prior millennia, and we question as to whether these events need to be repositioned along a different chronology.
In Avestan the name is Xvairizem, in Old Persian Huwarazmish, in Modern Persian خوارزم (Khwārazm), in Arabic خوارزم Khwārizm, in Old Chinese Hūsìmì (呼似密), modern ChineseHuālázǐmó (花剌子模), in Uzbek Xorazm, in Greek Χορασμία and Χορασίμα, by Herodotus. – Joaquin Flores, Custodian
Somewhere in a vague and distant area (which some think is placed in the South, others in the East) is a city that transcends everything humans have ever created. Above the city is the tower from which you can see each populated country and even dark and inhuman fields which indicate the end of the world. In its center is a field that is used by the gods for play. But above it is the hall with twelve thrones of which the highest one belongs to the most powerful among the gods. His name means “One” and he is the father of gods and men. While he is sitting at the table two ravens are resting on his shoulders; they tell him everything that’s going on in the world.
There are numerous castles that surround this hall. Icy waves are roaring above some of them, on the other side, others are constructed in the skies or on the seacoast. There is also a huge gate under which there is a grove with leaves of red and gold. It is, however, leading to another and more spacious hall where feasts are being held every day with brave warriors as guests. These are the warriors killed in battle; the most powerful of the gods is the Father of Fallen Warriors. They feast with boar meat that never lacks, cooked in a magic cauldron. The Father of the Gods does not eat boar, he only drinks wine; with his own meat he feeds two voracious wolfs which follow him always and everywhere.
It’s Asgard, City of Gods – a city built by the giants and gods. It is impossible to describe all the wonders and treasures it contains. Right next to Odin stands invincible, powerful Thor, who defends the abode of the gods with his irony gloves and deadly Mjolnir – mallet or hammer, which always comes back into the hands of the person who threw it. His property is called Thrudvang or Thruthvang, which means “power-field”. Goddess Idunn keeps the golden apples in her shrine, thanks to which the gods do not age. At the southern end of the sky is a castle Gimle, “brighter than the sun”, which will remain in place even when the whole world collapses. There is also a deer every day browsing leaves of St. Ash Tree (roots of that tree are reaching out to the dark underworld), and of whose horns dew is melting, the source of all rivers in Valhalla. But at the very end of the sky, next to the bridge Bifrost is a castle where Heimdallr sits, the keeper of the gods, who will blow his marvelous horn when the battle for the end of the world begins.
Description of Asgard, with all its fantastic details, we mostly owe to Snorri Sturluson, Icelander who wrote the Prose Edda (between the years 1222 and 1225), a complex of myths and beliefs of the people of old Scandinavia. In fact, these beliefs were common to the tribes and nations of the whole German speaking areas, or perhaps even wider than that. It should be noted that, Edda had been rejected for a long time by scholars as a figment of its author – at least until the discovery of even older manuscript, also in Iceland, four centuries after the death of Sturluson (1643), by Icelandic bishop Sveinsson. (This book was renamed The Elder Edda, as opposed to Sturluson’s Younger, and was immediately admitted into edaic cycle of poetry, which finally became the subject of serious studies.)
Edda contains the story of Aesir, a kind of genealogy of gods, as well as information about their migrations and the countries through which they passed. Sturluson’s story begins in a region located northerly of the Black Sea. This sea “divides one-third of the world: the one towards the east is called Asia and this one to the west some call Europe and some Aeneas. Northerly of the Black Sea is the Greater or Ice Sweden” (as opposed to Sweden in Scandinavia. Greater Sweden or Svitjod, or Svealand, simply means Holy or Sacred Earth). This is the stage for future major events. We read on in Sturluson’s writing Circle Terrestrial, that through that Sweden is flowing river Tanais, which used to be called Tanakvisl or Vanakvisl (and this is the Don River that flows into the Black Sea).
Author claims the region around the confluence of the Don was called Land of Vanir or Settlement of Vanir (first rivals and later allies of Aesir gods. First war in the world began between them. Aesir learned magic skills from Vanir: Vanir are older and wiser gods). And further: “Land in Asia east of Tanakvisl is called Land of Aesir or Settlement of Aesir,” its capital is Asgard and “there reigned the one named Odin. There was a great temple”. And also:” According to an old custom, there were twelve priests. They were in charge of sacrificial rituals… “(Ynglinga saga, II).
The story contained in Younger Edda is extremely accurate, not only geographically, but also chronologically. Odin left his land because he knew that, according to the prophecy, his descendants will inhabit the northern part of the world. He leaves his two brothers in Asgard. His son was called Skjold and he ruled the Denmark, Skjold’s grandson was named Frodi and ruled in the time of Emperor Augustus – “when Christ was born”. The events we mention were in the first century AD.
As an old chronicle claims, road led Odin through the land of Saxons. He appointed his son Beldur or Balder as a ruler of Westphalia. He came via Denmark to Sweden (the one in Scandinavia), which has been by then ruled by certain Gylfi. But Gylfi – defeated by Aesir wisdom and beauty – handed princely power to Odin and set out to Asgard; he set off to this journey “secretly, disguised as an old man”. Finally, after an exhausting journey, he discovered the “high castle with roof covered by gilded shields”. Inside it he detected numerous dignitaries feasting or fighting with weapons, just like those in the mythical Valhalla.
Odin’s glorious and long reign ends in the following way: on his new land he died of the disease. Before his death, he told his subjects that he is going back to the abode of the gods (we read this in the Ynglinga saga) promising that he will continue to accommodate his friends there. After his death, he has been appearing to Swedes before great battles, “to some giving the victory, others calling to join him”. His body was burned at the stake, which “was a brilliant sight”. He left his throne to Njord from Noatun, which also was Vanir… One of Njord’s descendants Svejgdir, will repeat Gylfi’s achievement and will go straight to the land of the Turks and Great Sweden, in order to find the old residence of Odin. The journey took five whole years. In Svitjod in Great Sweden he found plenty tribesmen and married a woman named Vana (precisely her name tells us that she was of divine race Vanir, and Vanir or Vyatichi, as it is known, are Slavs or Slavic ancestors).
Are gods fathers of humans or humans are fathers of gods? Do people create gods or, on the contrary, the gods created humans, as their companions, helpers and comrades? Story of Odin and his kin we have just introduced is undoubtedly correct. It can be also a memory of deified rulers and ancestors, but this in no case calls into question the cult, the belief in the divinity of the Father of gods and humans.
Following the narration of the ancient chronicle, Russian explorer Vladimir Shcherbakov believed he had found the mythical Asgard. He found it right in place to which the chronicle about Aesir pointed its finger. It’s Nisa, the ancient capital of the Parthia – the rival of Rome on the East, and alongside the Rome, the largest and most extensive empire of that time.
As noted by Shcherbakov, the poverty of history sources of Parthian beliefs is devastating. But, archaeological reconstruction of the Parthian capital and its cult places come to the rescue. Without dwelling on all architectural correspondences between mythical Asgard and ancient Nisa (old Nisa, but the situation with cult places in Nisaa is almost identical), I will mention that this is a true “copy” of Valhalla: it is mysterious Round Temple. Contours of the walls are square but within them there is a circular room – twelve meters high. At the second level of this hall there were pillars and colored clay statues placed in alcove. These are the statues of the gods or deified ancestors. Old Parthians fostered the cult of ancestors:
“Deified ancestors, Aesir, accommodated here the guards and the other warriors. These were their statues that have been, as in other temples, creating the effect of their presence.”
The same explorer noticed a seemingly incidental detail: Odin, as it is written down in Edda, participated in feasts alongside with his warriors. But he never ate there, wine was enough for him. In other words, his presence was symbolic, not real.
A series of highly complex and obvious coincidences may not yet prove that in the descriptions of Asgard from Scandinavian myths the memory of the actual Asgard is really preserved – abode of the gods in the old Nisa, the capital of Parthia. But they confirm the consanguinity of beliefs of so much spatially distant people – beliefs that, as pointed out in Edda, originated in the area above the Black Sea, which are the authentic habitats of Aesir and Vanir.
Chinese chronicles of Tang dynasty named the Parthian state – Ansi.